The main law for conducting railway carriage service is the Railway Transport Code of the Republic of Moldova, CODE No. 309 of 17/07/2003 (hereinafter Code No. 309/2003). The current Railway Transport Code of the Republic of Moldova is in effect until 18/02/2024. On 18/02/2024 the current code will be repealed and at the same time the new railway transport code of the Republic of Moldova will enter into force (Code No. 19 of 03/02/2022). Next, I will analyze the rail transport in the Republic of Moldova according to the current code (Code No. 309/2003).
The Moldovan railway transport activity is regulated and controlled by the state. Railway transport constitutes a natural monopoly, which imposes special conditions for the development and operation of railway transport. The sole railway transport enterprise in the Republic of Moldova is the State Enterprise ”Moldova Railway”, which administers the production and financial activity of the autonomous structural subdivisions that practice rail transport, as well as coordinates the work of other enterprises, organizations and railway transport institutions that ensure its operation. Moldova Railway is responsible for passenger and cargo transportation, as well as railway infrastructure maintenance within the country. In 2022 the total length of the network managed by Moldova Railway is 1,232 kilometres. The entire network is single track and is not electrified. To sum up, the State Enterprise ”Moldova Railway” occupies a strategic position in the transport sector of the Republic of Moldova, with an impact on many aspects of the socio-economic development of the country.