Overview of the current energy mix, and the place in the market of different energy sources

Organisation of the energy sector

Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia and home to more than 18 million people. As a country rich in coal, oil, natural gas and uranium, Kazakhstan’s economic focus remains firmly on its industrial sector and the extraction and processing of its natural resources. There is also enormous potential for renewable energy in Kazakhstan, particularly from wind and small hydropower plants. Kazakhstan’s total energy production covers more than twice its energy demand, which is why in 2018 Kazakhstan was the world’s ninth-largest exporter of coal, ninth of crude oil and 12th of natural gas.

Energy accounts for about 21% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), and approximately 62% of its exports.1 Interestingly, coal represents around half of Kazakhstan’s energy mix (50% in 2018), followed by oil and natural gas (both with 25% shares), whereas the share of natural gas in the total final consumption (TFC) was only 13% in 2018.


This article was first published in GLI - Energy 2021

Authors: Shaimerden Chikanayev, Partner; Lola Abdukhalykova, Counsel, GRATA International Kazakhstan

Lola Abdukhalykova
Author: Lola Abdukhalykova
Job title: Counsel
Astana, Kazakhstan
Practice area:
Finance and Securities
Project Finance & Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
Shaimerden Chikanayev
Author: Shaimerden Chikanayev
Job title: Partner
Almaty, Kazakhstan
Banking & Finance
Practice area:
Finance and Securities
Customs Law, International Trade & WTO
Project Finance & Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
Restructuring & Insolvency
Stay up to date with the latest legal news, publications and events: