Islamic Finance challenges in Turkey
Having almost 40 years of history, the Islamic banking sector in Turkey currently only has a 5–6% share of the fi nance market in the country. Out of 40 active banks, six are operating (excluding investment and development banks) under the Participation Banks Association of Turkey (TKBB) as Islamic banks and they have not yet reached the average level of their conventional competitors in terms of profi ts, total assets, deposits and loans.
General considerations regarding the jurisdiction of Austrian
Despite the fact that the political situation in Austria, in comparison with other countries of the Western world, is considered more favorable towards Russia, banks and other service providers have recently begun to treat Russian customers with increasing suspicion and skepticism. Therefore, doing business in Austria or using Austrian jurisdiction for capital management requires additional measures.
There is no doubt that Kazakhstan needs new economic drivers to facilitate the launch of innovative new businesses, to disrupt conventional industries and to transform intellectual capital into innovative start-ups.