Distribution contract under Russian law: antitrust restrictions
Russian civil law does not specifically provide such type of agreement such as a distribution contract. The contract, however, has become widely used in commercial practice as an instrument for regulating relations between producers/wholesale suppliers of goods and wholesale purchasers under the general principle of freedom of contract enshrined in Article 421 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter - the 'Civil Code').
Parallel import remedies: Russia and Kazakhstan
The issue of 'parallel import', i.e. importation and(or) sale in any country of original trademarked goods, which were not put by the exclusive right holder into civil circulation in this country, and remedies applicable by the rightholders, directly relates to the key aspects of regulation of trademark rights such as
Importance of so-called natural monopolies in Kazakhstan can be seen in the fact that some of Kazakhstan's largest and most powerful corporate empires, such as the Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company (KEGOC) (national transmission grid operator), KazTransOil (national oil transporter in Kazakhstan accounting to 80% of all oil transported in the country) and National Company Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (the national railway company of Kazakhstan) are officially subject to natural monopoly regulation.
Choice of a Form For Doing business in Russia By a foreign entity
Information herein is effective as of July 2014 and is of a general nature.
Project finance in the strict sense of the term (i.e. where the financing structure is based on the performance of the project itself) has not yet been developed or tested so far in Kazakhstan.
Presentation of GRATA International Partner, Shaimerden Chikanayev