On 29 October 2015, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan signed the Commercial Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
In the Address, dated 29 January 2010, ‘New Decade - New Economic Growth - New Opportunities for Kazakhstan’, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – N.A. Nazarbayev, said, in particular: “A huge potential to attract private investments belongs to the public-private partnership mechanism. We have launched this mechanism in Kazakhstan, but it requires improvements in accordance with the best international practice”.
Kazakhstan’s legal system is a civil law system similar to the systems in most other former Soviet jurisdictions. Its laws are contained in the Constitution, various codes, laws, edicts, decrees (having the force of law), regulations, instructions, orders and other normative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Presentation of Shaimerden Chikanayev, Partner of GRATA International: 'Bankruptcy or Restructuring? The Dilemma of a Creditor and a Debtor in Kazakhstan'.
Distribution contract under Russian law: antitrust restrictions
Russian civil law does not specifically provide such type of agreement such as a distribution contract. The contract, however, has become widely used in commercial practice as an instrument for regulating relations between producers/wholesale suppliers of goods and wholesale purchasers under the general principle of freedom of contract enshrined in Article 421 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter - the 'Civil Code').
Parallel import remedies: Russia and Kazakhstan
The issue of 'parallel import', i.e. importation and(or) sale in any country of original trademarked goods, which were not put by the exclusive right holder into civil circulation in this country, and remedies applicable by the rightholders, directly relates to the key aspects of regulation of trademark rights such as